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Good Farming Practices of Teak in India

Introduction

Teak (Tectona grandis Lf) belonging to family Lamiaceae is one of the best tropical hardwood tree species in the world known as ‘king of timber’. It is indigenous to India and naturally distributed to India, Myanmar, Thailand and Laos. Its timber is excellent in wood quality and property due to high durability and furnishing properties. Hence, teak has highest demand in Indian and International markets. On commercial scale, superior teak plants or clones are grown to earn good profits. First teak plantation was departed in Nilambur (Kerala) by Mr. Chatu Menon in 1842 raised more than a million teak trees and is known as ‘Father of Indian Teak Plantation’.

Teakwood are used in various purposes such as round wood, transmission poles, building poles, round wood structures, building timbers, beams, carpentry/joinery, flooring, wall paneling, engineering structures, bridges, hydraulic works, containers, tanks, woodware, wood carvings, toys, musical instruments, sports equipment, furniture, veneers, boats, wood based materials, plywood, wood extractives (oil) etc.

Most of the teak is known by name of its distribution range. Important trading teakwood names are 1. Nilambur or Malabar teak, 2. Godhavari teak, 3. Adilabad teak, 4. Konni teak, 5. Burma teak, 6. Malaysian teak, 7. Thai teak, 8. Java teak, 9. Central American teak, 10. African teak etc.

Indian teak trade names are Nilambur teak, Nilgiri teak, Godavari teak, Teli teak, Paratwada teak, Adilabad teak, Konni teak, Mysore teak, Balharshah teak, Nagpur teak, Konkan teak, Chandrapur teak, Dang teak, Valsad teak, Hoshangabad teak, Seoni teak, Baster teak, Banswara teak etc. Therefore, Teak farming is highly profitable farming due to its high demand national and international markets with various utility.

Soil and climatic requirement for teak farming

Monsoon climate under tropical and sub-tropical conditions is most favorable for teak cultivation in almost states of India (Palanisamy 2014). Generally, well drained sandy loam, black clay and black loamy soils with 6.5-7.5 pH is required for best growth of teak. It is a strong light demander species relative to 75 -100% of sunlight for better growth and development, however it is sensitive to frost and drought. Annual rainfall (1000-1500 mm) and temperature (10-50 ˚C) is adequate for higher growth of teak.

Quality planting material preparation for teak farming

Generally, seedlings and stumps are used to raise plantation, however now a day’s tissue cultured clones favored by teak growers in India. Around 2.5 to 4 kg seeds (1500-2500 seeds per kg) are required for one hectare land with germination (30-50% moist teak and 5-10 % in dry teak) to produce 1000-3000 seedlings. Teak stumps are prepared from seedlings [Shoot length (2.5-5 cm), collar diameter (2-3 cm) and root length (15-25 cm)] and 6 month old stump used for plantation. A large number of clones are produced form a superior tree through tissue culture.

Plantation practices for teak farming

Land should be deep ploughed and incorporated with lime to raise the pH of the soil. Weeds should be removed weeds before planting teak in field because it is very sensitive to weed competition. Then, the planting area staked with sticks along preferred spacing. Generally, square planting is done in square pits (45x45x45 cm3) for teak seedlings and 15 cm diameter holes with 30 cm depth for stump planting.

Spacing for teak farming

Mostly, initial spacing 1.8x1.8 m and 2x2 m was adept and afterward thinned in different stages. Generally, different spacing 2 x 2 m, 2x3 m, 3x3 m, 3.6x3.6 m, 3x4 m, 4x4 m, 6x6 m etc. are preferred by tree growers as per various utility and site quality.

Tending operations for teak farming

Weeding should be done twice in a month upto the age of three year teak plantation because it is susceptible to weeds. Pruning should be done regularly upto four years. First mechanical thinning is done at 5-7 years and second at 10-14 years under good site with close spacing (1.8×1.8 m and 2×2 m).

Teak farming under agroforestry models

In the southern part of India, teak grows with various agricultural crops like maize, turmeric, cotton, vegetables etc. within different agroforestry models. However, central India, it grows with Agrisilvicultural model, Agrisilvihorticulture model, Silvihorticulture model and Silvipastural systems.

Important pest-diseases control

Leaf defoliators (Hyblaea puera), leaf skeletonizer (Eutectona machaeralis) and stems borer (Calothermes tectonae) are major pests in teak. Leaf blight (Rhizoctonia  solani) is important disease. Pest attack can be controlled by foliar spray with chemicals such monocrotophos @ 0.05-0.1 % or Neem azal @ 1% at 10-15 days intervals. Disease can be controlled by eradication method.

Growth and Yield

The main stem attains 8 to 12 meter height along with 0.75 to 1.50 meter girth. Each teak wood tree yields 0.25 to 1.00 cubic meter wood within 14 to 30 years rotation.

Economics of teak wood farming

Cost and maintenance on teak farming was calculated for a hectare basis land (Anon. 2018). The price of cultivation may vary as per growing regions of the country. The cost of teak cultivation in India is 45000/- Rupees per Hectare as per teak wood farming project report (Table 1.). A total 20-25 lack rupees benefits can be obtained from teak wood farming in India (Table 2.).

Table 1. Establishing and maintains cost for teak wood farming in India

S. No.

Particulars Cost

(Rs/Hectare)

1.

Young Teak Plants (@ 2.50/-)

6,875/-

2.

Plant replacement (20% mortality) (550 @ 2.50/-)

1,375/-

3.

Labor cost (land preparation, planting, weeding, pits, soil working, etc.)

20,150/-

4.

Manure and Fertilizer

4,600/-

5.

Herbicides and Pesticides

3,800/-

6.

Irrigation

4,500/-

7.

Contingency

3,700/-

Total

 

45,000/-

(Table source: Anon. 2018)

Table 2. Income from teak wood farming in India

S. No.

Age (years)

Particulars

Income (Rs.)

1.

7 – 8

Trees fell for Poles (1000@ 125/-)

1,25,000/-

2.

13 – 14

Trees fell for Poles (500 @ 275/-)

1,37,500/-

3.

20

Trees fell for Heartwood (275 @ 65 cft @ 7,500/-)

4,87,500/-

4.

30

Trees fell for Heartwood (250 @108 cft@ 15,000/-)

16,20,000/-

Total

 

 

23,70,000/-

(Table source: Anon. 2018)

Reference

Anonymous (2018) https://www.agrifarming.in/teak-wood-farming-project-report-cost-and-profit/ accessed on Nov. 20, 2018.

Palanisamy, K. (2014). Cultivation Techniques for teak. In: Transfer of tree cultivation technologies to KVKs of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. Published by IFTGB, Coimbatore (India). Pp 1-5.



Writer :: Ravindra Kumar Dhaka, Suman Kumar Jha*, Chintankumar Chaudhari      Published on :: 13-Apr-2019


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